Learning Paths











Autonomy in learning




Autonomy and language learning theories



Psychological background Motivation




Beliefs and attitudes - specialised bibliography


Motivation - specialised bibliography



Styles and strategies




Individual differences Learning styles




Communication strategies



Learning strategies




Styles, strategies and new technologies - specialised bibliography







Methodology - Teaching options




Materials for students






Autonomy in learning

Brookes-Grundy 1988

Little 1991

 Benson-Voller 1997

 Holec-Huttunen 1997

Cotterall-Crabbe 1999

Sinclair et al. 2000

Benson 2001

Benson-Toogood 2002



 Autonomy and language learning theories

O'Malley-Chamot 1990

 van Lier 1996

 Skehan 1998


 Psychological background - Motivation

Ushioda 1996

Oxford 1996

 Williams-Burden 1997

Arnold 1999

Dornyei 2001 a and b


 Styles and strategies


Individual differences - Learning styles

Gardner 1983

 Skehan 1989

 Davis et al. 1994

 Reid 1995

Diaz Maggioli 1995

 Mariani 1996a

 Leaver 1997

Adey et al.1999


Learning strategies

Wenden-Rubin 1987

 Oxford 1990

McDonough 1995

 Holec et al. 1996

 Cohen 1998

Weaver and Cohen 1997

Lessard Clouston 1997

Little 1997

Woods 1997

Uhl Chamot et al. 1999

Boudah-O'Neill 1999



 Communication strategies

Faerch-Kasper 1983

 Di Pietro 1987

Tarone-Yule 1989

 Bialystok 1990

 Mariani 1994

Kasper-Kellerman 1997




 Methodology - Teaching options

Dickinson 1987

 Brookes-Grundy 1988

Nunan 1988

 Willing 1989

 Wenden 1991

 Dickinson 1992

Ainslie 1994

Uhl Chamot-O┤Malley 1994

Cotterall 1995

 Dam 1995

Mariani 1996b

 Tudor 1996

Ridley 1997

Breen-Littlejohn 2000

 Kohonen et al. 2001

Center for Research on Learning 2001



 Materials for students

Yorkey 1982

 Mariani 1987

 Ellis-Sinclair 1989

 Willing 1989

Gardner-Miller 1996

 Harrison 1997

 Davis et al. 1998

Lowes-Target 1998

Smith-Smith 1998

Griffiths-Keohane 2000

Scharle-Szab˛ 2000

Mariani 2000

Neuburg and Harris 2003

Douglas Brown




ADEY P., FAIRBROTHER R., WILIAM D., JOHNSON B., JONES C. 1999. Learning Styles and Strategies. A Review of Research. London, Centre for the Advancement of Thinking,  King┤s College London School of Education.

AINSLIE S. 1994. Mixed-Ability Teaching: Meeting Individual Needs. London, Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research.

ARNOLD J. (ed.) 1999. Affect in Language Learning. Cambridge, University Press.

BENSON P. 2001. Teaching and Researching Autonomy in Language Learning. Harlow, Longman.

BENSON P. "A Critical View of Learner Training". Learning Learning, 2/2.  

BENSON P., TOOGOOD S. 2002. Learner Autonomy: Challenges to Research and Practice. Dublin, Authentik.

 BENSON, P., VOLLER, P. (eds.) 1997. Autonomy and Independence in Language Learning. Harlow, Longman.

 BIALYSTOK E. 1990. Communication Strategies. Oxford, Basil Blackwell.

BOUDAH D.J.,O'Neill K.J. 1999. Learning Strategies. Reston: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education.

BREEN M.P., LITTLE JOHN A. (eds.) 2000. Classroom Decision-Making. Cambridge, University Press.

BROOKES A., GRUNDY P. 1988. Individualization and Autonomy in Language Learning. London, Modern English Publications in association with The British Council.

CENTER FOR RESEARCH ON LEARNING 2001. Strategic Instruction Model. Lawrence: University of Kansa.

COHEN A.D. 1998. Strategies in Learning and Using a Second Language. Harlow, Longman.

 COTTERALL S. 1995. "Developing a Course Strategy for Learner Autonomy". ELT Journal, 49/3.

 COTTERALL S., CRABBE D. 1999 (eds.). Learner Autonomy in Language Learning: Defining the Field and Effecting Change. Frankfurt, Peter Lang.

COUNCIL OF EUROPE EDUCATION COMMITTEE 1997. European Language Portfolio: Proposals for Development. Council of Europe, Strasbourg.

COUNCIL OF EUROPE 2001. Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

DAM L. 1995. Learner Autonomy: From Theory to Classroom Practice. Dublin, Authentik.

DAVIS E.C., NUR H., RURU S.A.A. 1994. "Helping Teachers and Students Understand Learning Styles", English Teaching Forum, Vol. 32, No. 3.

DAVIS P., GARSIDE B., RINVOLUCRI M. 1998. Ways of Doing. Cambridge, University Press.

DIAZ MAGGIOLI G.H. 1995. Managing Learning Styles in the Classroom. Alexandria, VA, Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.

DI PIETRO R.J. 1987. Strategic Interaction. Cambridge, University Press.

DICKINSON L. 1987. Self-Instruction in Language Learning. Cambridge, University Press.

DICKINSON L. 1992. Learner Autonomy: Learner Training for Language Learning. Dublin, Authentik.

DORNYEI Z. 2001a. Teaching and Researching Motivation. Harlow, Longman.

DORNYEI Z. 2001b. Motivational Strategies in the Language Classroom. Cambridge, University Press.

DOUGLAS BROWN H. Strategies for Success. Harlow, Longman.

ELLIS G., SINCLAIR B. 1989. Learning to Learn English. Cambridge, University Press.

FAERCH F., KASPER G. (eds.) 1983. Strategies in Interlanguage Communication. Harlow, Longman.

GARDNER D., MILLER L. (eds.) 1996. Tasks for Independent Language Learning. Alexandria, TESOL.

GARDNER H. 1983. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. NY, Basic Books.

 HARRISON L. (ed.) 1997. Learner Independence Worksheets. IATEFL Learner Independence Special Interest Group.

 HOLEC, H., HUTTUNEN, I. (eds.) 1997. L'Autonomie de l'Apprenant en Langues Vivantes. Recherche et DÚveloppement/Learner Autonomy in Modern Languages. Research and Development. Strasbourg, Council of Europe Press.

 HOLEC, H., LITTLE, D., RICHTERICH, R. 1996. Strategies in Language Learning and Use. Strasbourg, Council of Europe Press.

 KASPER G., KELLERMAN E. (eds.) 1997. Communication Strategies. Harlow, Longman.

KOHONEN V., JAATINEN R., KAIKKONEN P., LEHTOVAARA J. 2001. Experiential Learning in Foreign Language Education. Harlow, Longman.

GRIFFITHS G., KEOHANE K. 2000. Personalizing Language Learning. Cambridge, University Press.

 LEAVER B.L. 1997. Teaching the Whole Class. Thousand Oaks (CA), Corwin Press.

LESSARD-CLOUSTON M.1997. "Language Learning Strategies: An Overview for L2 Teachers." The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. III, No. 12.

 van LIER, L. 1996. Interaction in the Language Curriculum: Awareness, Autonomy & Authenticity. Harlow, Longman.

 LITTLE D. 1991. Learner Autonomy: Definitions, Issues and Problems. Dublin, Authentik.

LITTLE D. 1997. "Strategies in Language Learning and Teaching: Some Introductory Reflections." CILT Research Forum:"Strategies in Language Learning"".

 LOWES R., TARGET F. 1998. Helping Students to Learn. London, Richmond Publishing.

MARIANI L. 1987. Study Skills Through English. Bologna, Zanichelli.

MARIANI L. 1994. "Developing Strategic Competence in Oral Interaction". Perspectives (Tesol-Italy), Vol. XX, No. 1.

MARIANI L. 1996a. "Investigating Learning Styles", Perspectives, Vol. XXI, 2/Vol. XXII, 1.

MARIANI L. 1996b. "Stili di Apprendimento e Strategie di Apprendimento e Insegnamento", in Moro M.G., Pellicioli P. (a cura di). Fare e Valutare la Formazione. Atti del Seminario per Formatori PSLS. Venezia-Mestre, IRRSAE Veneto.

MARIANI L. 2000. Portfolio. Strumenti per documentare e valutare cosa si impara e come si impara. Bologna, Zanichelli.

MC DONOUGH S.H. 1995. Strategy and Skill in Learning a Foreign Language. London, Edward Arnold.

NEUBURG R., HARRIS V. 2003. Learning My Way. A Handbook on Language Learning Strategies (with CD-Rom). Socrates Grundtvig Programme, Kaunas, Technologija.

NUNAN D. 1988. The Learner-Centred Curriculum. Cambridge, University Press.

O'MALLEY J.M., UHL CHAMOT A. 1990. Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge, University Press

OXFORD R.L. 1990. Language Learning Strategies. New York, Newbury House.

OXFORD R.L. (ed.) 1996. Language Learning Motivation: Pathways to the New Century. Manoa, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center, University of Hawai┤i.

PHILPOT S. Building Blocks for English. Delta Publishing.

REID J.M. (ed.) 1995. Learning Styles in the ESL/EFL Classroom. Boston, Newbury House.

RIDLEY J. 1997. Learner Autonomy: Developing Learners┤ Thinking Skills. Dublin: Authentik.

SCHARLE A., SZABO┤ A. 2000. Learner Autonomy. Cambridge, University Press.

SINCLAIR B., MC GRATH I., LAMB T. (eds.) 2000. Learner Autonomy, Teacher Autonomy: Future Directions. Harlow, Longman in association with the British Council.

SKEHAN P. 1989. Individual Differences in Second-Language Learning. London, Edward Arnold.

 SKEHAN P. 1998. A Cognitive Approach to Language Learning. Oxford, University Press.

SMITH S., SMITH J. 1998. Wordflo - Your Personal English Organiser. Harlow, Longman.

TARONE E., YULE, G. Focus on the Language Learner. Oxford, University Press.

 TUDOR I. 1996. Learner-centredness as Language Education. Cambridge, University Press.

UHL CHAMOT A., O┤MALLEY J.M. 1994. The CALLA Handbook: Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach. Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley.

UHL CHAMOT A., BARNHARDT S., BEARD EL-DINARY P., ROBBINS J. 1999. The Learning Strategies Handbook. White Plains, NY, Addison Wesley Longman.

USHIODA E. 1996. Learner Autonomy: The Role of Motivation. Dublin, Authentik.

WEAVER S.J. and COHEN A.D. 1997. Strategies-Based Instruction: A Teacher-training Manual. University of Minnesota, Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition.

WENDEN A. 1991. Learner Strategies for Learner Autonomy. London, Prentice-Hall.

 WENDEN A., RUBIN J. 1987. Learner Strategies in Language Learning. London, Prentice-Hall.

 WILLIAMS M., BURDEN R. L. 1997. Psychology for Language Teachers. A Social Constructivist Approach. Cambridge, University Press.

 WILLING K. 1989. Teaching How To Learn.Sydney, NCELTR, Macquarie University.

WINGATE J. Knowing Me, Knowing You. Delta Publishing.

WOODS D. 1997. "Decision-making in Language Learning: A Lens for Examining Learner Strategies." Language Teacher Online.

 YORKEY R. 1982. Study Skills for Students of English. New York, McGraw-Hill.




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