Learning Paths

Teaching and learning grammar

Communicative language learning: where does grammar fit in?

(Problems and experiences in the teaching of English - Vol. II, No. 4, December 1985)

What roles can grammar be expected to play in "communicative" language learning? What changes in the traditional notion of "grammar" may be necessary, and how can language be described in a "communicative" approach?


Communicative language teaching and learning: the role of reference grammars

(Perspectives, a Journal of TESOL-Italy - Vol. XII, No. 1, January 1987)

One of the main pedagogical issues raised by communicative language teaching is how to relate form, meaning and function within a coherent methodology, and how to help students see these relationships and make the most of them during their learning process.


Form, meaning and function: a new look at reference grammars

("English in school: An overview" - The British Council 1986 Sorrento Conference)

How can the grammar of a language be described when that language is seen primarily as a means of communication?


Developing materials and techniques for "reflection on language" in the classroom

(Problems and experiences in the teaching of English - Vol. IV, No. 2, 1988)

Along with a concern for communication, i.e. prompting students to use a language, we can also be concerned with reflection, i.e. prompting students to think and talk about that same language.


Learning strategies
Learning styles
Study skills
Learner autonomy
Beliefs and attitudes

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